Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris

Kata kerja dijadikan Kata Benda

Kecuali dengan bentuk GERUND (infinitive + ing) yang mengandung arti hal perbuatan/cara perbuatan itu dilakukan, misalnya : swimming is good for our health, collecting stamps is my hobby, reading French is difficult, parking here is forbidden dsb. – kata kerja yang dijadikan kata benda bisa dibuat dengan memberi berbagai akhiran selain “ing”.

a. Infinitive + TION
to inform – information artinya: penerangan
to reform – reformation : pembaharuan
to solve – solution larutan, pemecahan
to repeat – repetition ulangan
to produce – production hasil/produksi
to attend – attention perhatian
to pronounce – pronunciation pengucapan suara
to administer – administration pengelolaan
to educate – education pendidikan
to elect – election pemilihan
to invite – invitation undangan
to intend – intention niat
to invent – invention penemuan (baru)
to demonstrate – demonstration demonstrasi
to alter – alteration pengubahan (ganti)
to altercate – altercation pertengkaran
to fabricate – fabrication pembuatan
to act – action perbuatan
to appreciate – appreciation penghargaan
to assume – assumption sangkaan/dugaan
to corrupt – corruption (korupsi)
to classify – classification (jenis/klasifikasi)
to circulate – circulation (peredaran)
to combine – combination (gabungan/kombinasi)
to mwounicate – communication (perhubungan)
to confirm – confirmation (penetapan/pengesahan)
to decorate – decoration (dekorasi ruangan)
to declare – declaration (pernyataan)
to devote – devotion (ketaman/kepamhan)
to expose – exposition (pertunjuka/pameran)
to except – exception (bantahan/kekecualian
to frustrate – frustration (kekecewaan dan bingung;frustasi)
to hesitate – hesitation (kebimbangan)
to inject – injection (suntikan)
to interrupt – interruption (pemulusan/penentangan)
to interpret – interpretation (penafsiran)
to intervere – intervention (campur tangan)
to narrate – narration (penceramah)
to observe – observation (pengamatan)
to operate – operation (pembedahan ;kedokteran ;gerakan ;militer                   pengerjaan)
to present -presentation (presentasi)
to register – registration (pendaftaran)
to relate – relation (perhubungan)
to restore – restoration (perbaikan/pemugaran)
to satisfy – satisfaction (kepuasan)
to translate – translation (penerjemahan)

b. Berakhiran SION
to permit – permission (izin)
to omit – omission (penghilangan/penanggalan)
to secede – secession (pemisahan)
to succeed – succession (pewarisan)
to apprehend – apprehension (pemahamam, keprihatinan,pengertian,                      kecemasan)
to decide – decision (keputusan)
to discuss – discussion (perundingan)
to suspect – suspicion (kesangsian, kecurigaan)
to explode – explosion (ledakan, letusan)

c. Berakiran URE
to please – pleasure (kesenangan)
to press – pressure (tekanan)
to depart – departure (keberangkatan)
to sign – signature (tandatangan)
to seize – seizure (perampasan)

d. Berakhiran AL
to arrive – arrival (kedatangan)
to try – trial (percobaan)
to approve – approval (pernyataan setuju)
to remove – removal (perpindahan)
to rehearse – rehearsal (pengulangan)
to acquit – acquittal (pelunasan/kelepasan)
to dispose – disposal (pengaturan/kecondongan)
to edit – editorial (tajuk rencana)
to continue – continual (kesinambungan)

e. Berakhiran MENT
to govern – government (pemerintahan)
to equip – equipment (perlengkapan)
to agree – agreement (persetujuan)
to improve – improvement (perbaikan)
to enlarge – enlargement (perluasan)
to pay – payment (pembayaran)
to invest – investment (penanaman modal)
to punish – punishment (hukuman)
to arrange – arrangement (tatanan, susunan)
to settle – settlement (penyelesaian, perkampungan)
to entertain – entertainment (hiburan)
to manage – management (pengelolaan)
to develop – development (perkembangan)

f. Berakhiran CB/ANCE
to perform – performance (pertunjukan)
to resist – resistance (perlawanan)
to assist – assistance (bantuan)
to appear – appearance (kemunculan, penampilan)
to enter – entrance (jalanmasuk)
to guide – guidance (tuntunan, panduan)
to serve – service (pelayanan)
to accord – accordance (persesuaian/persetujuan)
to maintain – maintenance (pemeliharaan)
to defend – defense (pertahanan)

g. Berakhlran ESS
to succeed – success (keberhasilan)
to proceed – process (perkembangan/kemajuan)
to exceed – excess (kelebihan)

h. Berakhiran TH
to grow – growth (perturnbuhan)
to die – death (kematian)
to deepen (memperdalam) – depth (kedalaman)

t. Ada pula kata-kata yang diberi bentuk tersendiri dan berubah suara/bunyi
to see – sight (penglihatan)
to fly – flight (penerbangan)
to receive – receipt (tanda penerimaan)
to draw – drawing (gambar)
to drink – draught (tegukan/minum (obat))
to give – gift (pemberian)
to speak – speech (pidato)
to loose – loss (kehilangan/rugi)
to choose – choice (pilihan)
to live – life (kehidupan)
to conquer – conquest (penaklukan)
to pray – prayer (persembahan/doa)
to sing – song (nyanyian)
to know – knowledge (pengetahuan)

J. Ada pula kata-kata kerja yang tidak berubah sama sekali bentuknya
to walk – walk (perjalanan/jalannya)
to ride – ride (pengendaraan)
to dance – dance (tarian)
to play – play (permainan)
to visit – visit (kunjungan)
to escape – escape (kelepasan/kelolosan)
to laugh – laugh (tertawa)
smile – smile (senyuman)
to sleep – sleep (tidurnya)
to plant – plant (tanaman)
to change – change (perubahan)
to look – look (pandangan)
to show – show (pertunjukkan)
to drink – drink (minuman)
to love – love (cinta)
to aid – aid (bantuan)
to help – help (pertolongan)

Kata Benda dijadikan Kata Sifat

a. Dengan pemberian akhiran Y
anger – angry (marah)
wealth – wealthy (makmur)
health – healthy (sehat)
fun – funny (lucu/menggelikan)
hair – hairy (berambut)
rain – rainy (berhujan)
wind – windy (berangin)
cloud – cloudy (berawan)
fog – foggy (berkabut)
noise – noisy (ribut/berisik)
sorrow – sorry (menyesal/sedih/sayang)
dust – dusty (kotor/berdebu)

b. Akhiran OUS
danger – dangerous (berbahaya)
victory – victorious (gemilang)
glory – glorious (megah)
mystery – mysterious (penuh rahasia)
delight – delicious (nyaman/nikmat/lezat)

c. Akhiran FUL
wonder – wonderful (ajaib)
use – useful (berguna)
delight – delightful (nyaman)
care – careful (hati-hati)
wish – wishful (berkeinginan)
dread – dreadful (mengerikan)
peace – peaceful (penuh kedamaian)
power – powerful (penuh kekuatan)
doubt – doubtful (ragu sekali)
success – successful (sangat berhasil)
respect – respectful (hormat)

d. Akhiran AL
history – historical (bersejarah)
condition – conditional (bersyarat)
science – scientifical (ilmiah)
spirit – spiritual (rohaniah)
education – educational (mengenai pendidikan)
centrum – central (pusat)
origin – original (asli)
person – personal (bersifat pribadi)

PERUBAHAN MAKNA DAN BENTUK KATA

DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS

Compiled by: Jasmansyah

Kata Sifat dijadikan Kata Benda

a. Dengan pemberian akhiran CE
patient – patience (kesabaran)
important – importance (pentingnya)
present – presence (kehadiran)
absent – absence (ketidakhadiran)
different – difference (perbedaan)
distant – distance (jarak)

b. Akhiran NESS
sad – sadness (kesedihan)
glad – gladness (kegembiraan)
happy – happiness (kebahagiaan)
kind – kindness (keramahan/kebaikan)
dark – darkness (kegelapan)
bright – brightness (kecemerlangan)

c. Akhiran ITY
noble – nobility (keagungan budi)
able – ability (kemampuan)
capable – capability (kecakapan)
pure – purity (keaslian/kemurnian/kesucian)
popular – popularity (ketenaran)
original – originality (keaslian)

d. Ada yang mempunyai bentuk khusus
high – height (tinggi/tingginya)
wide – width (lebar/luas/lebarnya/luasnya)
long – length (panjang/panjangnya)
deep – depth (dalam/dalamnya)
strong – strength (kekuatan)
new – novelty (kebaharuan)
true – truth (kebenaran)
rich – riches (kekayaan)
proud – pride (kebanggaan)

Kata Kerja dijadikan Kata Sifat

a. Dengan pemberian akhiran BLE
to bear – bearable (dapat ditahan)
to obtain – obtainable (bisa diperoleh)
to apply – applicable (dapat digunakan)
to break – breakable (mudah pecah)
to manage – manageable (dapat dikelola/dikendalikan)
to extend – extensible (dapat diperluas)
to find – findable (dapat diketemukan)
to separate – separable (dapat dipisahkan)
to penetrate – penetrable (dapat ditembus/dimasuki)
to agree – agreeable (dapat disetujui)
to accept – acceptable (dapat diterima)

b. Ada yang mempunyai bentuk sendiri
to hear – audible (dapat didengar)
to read – legible (dapat dibaca)
to eat – edible (dapat dimakan)
to see – visible (dapat dilihat)
to burn – inflammable (mudah terbakar)
to touch – palpable/tangible (dapatdiraba/disentuh)
to carry – portable (dapat diangkut/dicangking)
to bend – flexible (dapat dilengkungkan)
to feel – sensible (dapat dirasakan)

c. Perhatikan arti kata-kata di bawah ini
inalienable – tidak dapat dicabut haknya
irreplaceable – tidak dapat digantikan
indispensable – tidak dapat ditinggalkan
innumerable – tidak terhingga banyaknya
irresponsible – tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan
inviolable – tidak boleh diganggu gugat
irrevocable – tidak boleh tidak (harus)
irresistible – tidak dapat menahan godaan,karena sangat menarik
incredible – tidak dapat dipercaya/mustahil/tak masuk akal

The Active and Pasive Voice

Tenses terbagi menjadi present, past, dan future.
berikut ini iktisar dari bagan – bagannya dengan bentuk Active dan Passive Voice

PRESENT
Present Simple

Active Passive
S + V1 + O + Complement S penderita + is/am/are + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Present Continuous

Active Passive
S + is/am/are + V-ing + O + Complement S penderita + is/am/are + being + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Present Perfect

Active Passive
S + have/has + V3 + O + Complement S penderita +have/has +been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Present Perfect Continuous

Active Passive
S + have/has + been+ V -ing + O + Complement NO PASSIVE FORM

PAST
Past Simple

Active Passive
S + V2 + O + Complement S penderita +was/were +V3 + by O pelaku +Complement

Past Continuous

Active Passive
S +was/were + V-ing + O + complement S penderita +was/were + being + V3 + by O pelaku +Complement

Past Perfect

Active Passive
S + had + V3 + O + Complement S penderita + had + been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Past Perfect continuous

Active Passive
S + had + been + V-ing + O + Complement NO PASSIVE FORM

FUTURE
Future Simple

Active Passive
S + will/shall/be going to + inf. + O + Complement S penderita +will/shall/be going to + be + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Future Continuous

Active Passive
S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O + Complement NO PASSIVE FORM

Future Perfect

Active Passive
S + will/shall + have + V3 + O + Complement S penderita + have/has + been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement

Future Perfect Continuous

Active Passive
S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing + O + Complement NO PASSIVE FORM

Catatan :
Complement
adalah keterangan pelengkap yang perlu dicantumkan, misal : keterangan tempat dan keterangan waktu.

Auxiliary and Modals

PRESENT

PAST

Ability

Can
I can speak German
Could
I could speak German when I was a child

Permission

May, Can, Might
May I go playing football ?
Could, Might
Could I go playing football?

Possibility

May, Can, Might
John hasn’t come yet. He may work.
May, Have, Might Have
John hadn’t come yet when we got home.He might have worked overtime

Advise

Should, Ought to, Had better.
You should study hard.
Should have, Ought to have.
you should have studied hard.

Necessity

Must, Have to.
We must eat our breakfast.
Had to
We had to eat our breakfast this morning.

Probability

Must
He is absent today.
He must be sick
.
Must have
He was absent yesterday.
He must have been sick.

Catatan :

  1. Probability adalah strong possibility.
  2. Larangan (Prohibition) dinyatakan dengan menggunakan MUST NOT. Contoh :
    You must not go out tonight
    (kamu dilarang pergi).
    You don’t have to go out tonight (kamu tidak perlu pergi).
  3. SHOULD HAVE dan COULD HAVE menyatakan penyesalan terhadap suatu aktivitas yang pada kenyataannya tidak dilakukan.
  4. WOULD juga digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan masa lalu (bermakna USED TO).
    contoh :

    • My Grandfather would tell bedtime story when I was a child.
    • My Grandfather used to tell bedtime story when I was a child.

Elliptical Construction

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

SO + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT NEITHER + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT
SUBJECT + AUXILIARY + TOO SUBJECT + AUXILIARY(NOT) + EITHER
you are a student.
I am a student.

you are a student,
and so am I.
And I am too.

you are not a doctor.
I am not a doctor.

you are not a doctor,
and nether am I.
And I am not either.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
(If Clause)

1. PRESENT REAL

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

FACT

if+Simple Present
If I graduate in march
S+Modal1(will)+inf.+O
I will take master degree in July.
it is possible to happen.
I may graduate in March so I may take master degree in July.
2. PRESENT UNREAL

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

FACT

if+Simple Past
If I graduated in March.
S+Modal2(wouldl)+inf.+O
I would take master degree in July.
Simple Present
I don’t graduate in March so I can’t take master degree in July.
3. PAST UNREAL

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

FACT

if+ Past Perfect
If I had graduated in March.
S+Modal2(would)+have+V3+O
I would have taken master degree in July.
Simple Past
I couldn’t take master degree in July because I didn’t graduate in March.

Catatan:

  1. Pernyataan dalam SUBJUNCTIVE dan CONDITIONAL SENTENCES selahu bertentangan dengan fakta.
  2. Perubahan-perubahan TENSES yang terjadi dalam SUBJUNCTIVE juga berlaku dalam CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
  3. IF dalam IF CLAUSE dapat dihilangkan jika terdapat kata bantu SHOULD, WERE, dan HAD dalam IF CLAUSE.
    ex: If I had been rich – Had I been rich

GERUND
adalah kata benda yang dibentuk dari V-Ing, dan di dalam kalimat digunakan
Sebagai:

Subjek WALKING is healthy
Objek I hate SMOKING.
Objek dari sebuah preposisi He is in charge OF ORGANIZING the meeting.

Dengan BY untuk menerangkan bagaimana sesuatu hal dilakukan. I found out what QUENCH means BY LOOKING up the dictionary.

Sesudah kata kerja
berikut ini

admit, delay, mention, suggest, look forward to.
appreciate, deny, mind, tolerate, avoid, discuss, postpone, understand, can’t stand, enjoy, practice, hate, can’t help, finish, quit, be used to, complete, keep, regret, be accustomed to.
consider, like, risk, object to.

SPEECH

SPEECH terbagi dalam dua bentuk DIRECT dan INDIRECT

1. Direct Speech
menyatakan isi pembicaraan seseorang dengan mengutip kata-katanya sebagaimana yang diucapkan

Jika:

Statement
John said, “I will go to Bali Tonight.

Yes / No Question
She asked, “Do you know the speaker’s name?”

WH – Question
The teacher asked Jane, “Why did you make many mistakes?”

Imperative
She said to the boys, “Sit down!”

(negative)
She told me. “Don’t speak!”

Present
Past Simple
Past Perfect

2. Indirect Speech
menyatakan isi pembicaraan seseorang tanpa mengutip kata-katanya sbagaiman adanya.

Maka :

THAT + statement
John said (that) he would go to Bali that night.

WHETHER/ IF + Statement
She asked me whether/if I knew the speaker’s name.

WH -Statement
The teacher asked Jane why she had made many mistakes.

TO INFINITIVE
She told the boys To Sit down.

NOT to infinitive
She told me Not To Speak .

Past
Past Perfect
Past Perfect

CATATAN

  • Would, should, had better, might, used to dan could di dalam Indirect Speech tidak mengalami perubahan.
  • Kata penghubung That boleh dihilangkan dalam Indirect Speech.

CAUSATIVE

Pola ini digunakan untuk menyuruh seseorang melakukan sesuatu.

Contoh Causative:

ACTIVE CAUSATIVE

  1. S + Let/make/have + O pelaku + Infinitive + O penderita
    ex: john had the mechanic repair his car.
  2. S + Get + O pelaku + To Infinitive + O penderita
    ex: john got the mechanic to repair his car.

PASSIVE CAUSATIVE

  • S + Make/have/get + O penderita + Verb3
    ex: john made his car repaired.

PREFERENCE

  1. Untuk menyatakan kelebihsukaan terhadap suatu benda atau kegiatan digunakan struktur sebagai berikut:
  1. S  +  Like    + Noun*/ Gerund* + Better Than + Noun**/Gerund**
    Jane  likes            apple                  better than       grape.
  2. S +   Prefer + Noun*/ Gerund*  + To         + Noun** / Gerund**
    Jane prefers    eating apple        to                  eating grape
  3. S +   Prefer + To infinitive + (Rather) Than+Infinitive/Gerund/Noun
    Jane prefers   to eat apple     rather than     eat grape
  4. S+Would prefer+To infinitive+(Rather)Than+ Infinitive/Gerund/Noun
    Jane would prefer to eat apple       than          eating grape
  5. S + Would Rather + Infinitive + THAN + Infinitive / Gerund / Noun
    Jane would rather eat apple   than                    grape

B. Untuk meminta seseorang melakukan suatu kegiatan secara halus (implied causative) digunakan struktur sebagai berikut:

  1. S + Prefer    + Someone (Subject) + To infinitive
    I     prefers                 he                     to go to bed
  2. S + Would Rather + Someone (Subject) + Verb**
    I     would rather                 he                went to bed

Adjective Clause

Clause ini digunakan untuk memberi keterangan, identitas, dan informasi lain kepada katabenda (Antecedent). Dalam struktur Adjective Clause ditandai dengan Relative Pronoun, yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, when, where, why, dan that.

Who
digunakan untuk orang dalam posisi subjek (human as subject).

Whom
digunakan untuk orang dalam posisi objek (human as object).

Which
digunakan untuk benda, baik dalam posisi subjek atau objek (non-human as subject/object).

That
digunakan sebagai subtitusi who, whom, atau which.

Whose
digunakan untuk kepemilikan.

When
digunakan untuk waktu.

Why
digunakan untuk sebab.

Contoh :
My English teacher is the man who Is standing near the pillar.
The house where I live is being renovated.

Adjective clause dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:

1. Important (defining) adjective clause, yaitu adjective clause yang merupakan informasi penting bagi antecedent.

2. Unimportant (undefining) adjective clause
, yaitu adjective clause yang merupakan informasi yang tidak penting bagi antecedent .

Contoh :
Important
Bob’s brother that (who) lives in New York is an actor.

Meaning
Bob has more than one brother.

Unimportant
Bob’s brother, who lives in New York is an actor.

Meaning
Bob has only one brother.

Catatan :
Dalam important adjective clause, relative pronoun, seperti: who, whom, which dapat digantikan dengan that; sedangkan dalam unimportant adjective clause tidak.

Adverb Clause

Clause ini digunakan untak memberi keterangan tambahan kepada Main Clause. Dalam struktur Adverb Clause ditandai dengan kata penghubung yang sesuai dengan keterangan yang diberikan,antara lain:

  1. Time : after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while.
  2. Place : where, wherever.
  3. Reason : because, since.
  4. Purpose : so that, in order that.
  5. Manner : as if, as though.
  6. Condition : if, in case, provided that, unless, otherwise.
  7. Result : so.. that, such . . . that, therefore, thus, consequently.
  8. Contrast : although, though, even though, however, but, in spite of, despite.

Contoh :
He is such a good teacher that I will never forget him.
You will not make a success unless you work hard.

Noun Clause

Noun Clause berfungsi sama dengan single-word noun dalam kalimat sebagai subjek atau objek.

Contoh:
1. Noun Clause as Subject

Single-Word Noun                              Noun Clause
His house is big.                      Where he lives is big.
Her story was very interesting. What she told us teas very interesting.
2. Noun Clause as Object

Single-Word Noun                             Noun Clause
I don’t know him.                   I don’t know who he is.
She is reading my letter. She is reading what I have written.
Klausa ini dapat berasal dari statement, yes/no question, dan information question .

1. Statement
Contoh :
Everyone knows®The world is round.  that the world is round.

2. Yes/No Question
Contoh :
I don’t®Is he feeling fine ?  whether/if he is feeling fine.

3. Information Question
Contoh :
®Who are you talking to ?  Who I am talking to is not your business.

Catatan :
Adjective Clause dam Adverb Clause dapat direduksi menjadi phrase dengan menghilangkan beberapa bagian clause. Adverb Clause dapat direduksi jika subjek dalam Adverb Clause dan Main Clause sama.

a. Adjective Clause

  1. Hilangkam Relative Pronoun dan to be dalam Adjective Clause.
    The child ®Clause  who is bitten by a dog is crying.
     The child®Phrase  bitten by a dog is crying.
  2. Jika tidak ada to be dalam Adjective Clause, maka verb diubah menjadi verb-ing.
    Anyone®Clause  who has library card may check out books.
     Anyone®Phrase  having library card may check out books.

b. Adverb Clause

  1. Hilangkan subjek dan to be dalam Adverb Clause.
     I was very sad®Clause  while I was packing my suitcase.
     I was very sad®Phrase  while         packing my suitcase.
  2. Jika tidak ada to be dalam Adverb Clause, maka verb diubah menjadi verb-ing.
    ®Clause  Before I left the class, I asked about the exam.
    ®Phrase  Before leaving the class, I asked about the exam.
  3. Khusus untuk so that dan if clause diubah menjadi to infinitive phrase .
    I moved to the place by them®Clause  so that I could surf everyday.
    I moved to the place by®Phrase  the sea to surf everyday.

 We can stop at that place®Clause  if we want to take a rest.  We can stop at that place®Phrase  to take a rest.

2

Jenis-jenis text dalam Bahasa Inggris

NARRATIVE
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

RECOUNT
Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

REPORT
Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

PROCEDURE
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

DISCUSSION
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

REVIEW
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions

SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

NEWS ITEM
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

//

Related Posts :

Abstract on Text Types

Analytical Exposition

Anecdote

Descriptive

Discussion

Explanation

Hortatory Exposition

Narrative

News Item

Procedure

Recount

Report

Review

Ada 6 jenis text yang akan dijelaskan disini:

1.Recount

2.Procedure

3.Anecdote

4.Narrative

5.Report

6.Report

1.RECOUNT

Recount Tujuan komunikatif: Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. Struktur teks: * Pendahuluan (orientasi), yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, di mana dan kapan; *  Laporan (rentetan) peristiwa, kegiatan yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan secara berurut

Contoh:

Class Picnic

Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic

First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.

We had a great day.

2.PROCEDURE

Procedure, the communicative purpose is to tell the steps of making or doing something. (Tujuan komunikatif nya: memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.)

Generic Structure: Goal/Aim – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods

Language Features of Procedure text:

Imperative form, ex: Cut, Pour,  Don’t mix, dsb.

action verbs: turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.

connectives (untuk mengurutkan kegiatan), ex: then, while, dsb.

adverbials (untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat), ex: for five minutes, two centimetres from the top, dsb.

Contoh:

SESAME DROP BISCUITS

Ingredients/Materials:

2 cups flour

1 ½ teaspoons baking powder

½ reaspoon each baking soda and salt

Butter  or margarine

2 tablespoons sesame seed

1 cup buttermilk

Night Before:

In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.

2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .

Stir in sesame seed.

Next Morning:

Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.

Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.

Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.

Serve at once with butter.

3.ANECDOTE

Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

Contoh Anecdote:

Blessing Behind Tragedy

There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.

The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.

The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.

Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.

The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

GenericStructureAnalysis:
Abstract: Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do?

Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. They prepared well for their plan

Crisis: few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan.

Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.

Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.

4.REPORT

Report Tujuan Komunikatif: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.

Contoh:

Fax Machine

Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.

5.NARRATIVE

Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau khayal. Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah). Jumlah masalah atau penyelesaiannya mungkin hanya satu, mungkin juga lebih.   Struktur Teks: * Pengenalan latar: tokoh, waktu, dan tempat: * Pengembangan konflik; * Penyelesaian konflik; *  Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh atau pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.

Contoh 1:

It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.

Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.

We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.

The first boat was just in front  I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure  it was the shape of a cigar. ‘Oh my  God’,  I thought, ‘I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!’

Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. ‘Oh no, why only half?’ I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, ‘Shark! Shark!’ and suddenly we forgot the race. We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!

Contoh 2:

Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.

The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.

When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.

Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned  to it.

Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.

The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.

6.DESCRIPTIVE

Tujuan Komunikatif :   Struktur Teks: ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu.   * Pengenalan benda, orang atau sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan. * Deskripsi: menggambarkan ciri-ciri benda tersebut,misalnya berasal dari mana, warnanya, ukurannya, kesukaannya dsb. Deskripsi ini hanya memberikan informasi mengenai benda atau orang tertentu yang sedang dibahas saja, misalnya deskripsi tentang ‘My Dog’. Ciri-ciri ‘anjing saya’ tersebut dapat berbeda dengan anjing yang lain.

What is descdiptive text?

The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.

The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense

Contoh 1:

Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.Analyzing the Text (Generic Structure Analysis):
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general; Borobudur temple
Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics

Language Feature Analysis
Using adjective and classifiers; valuable
Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed, etc

Contoh 2:

The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made them no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway station which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.

The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive, with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel, the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.

A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour. Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the world.

3

When we recognize three levels in essay writing intense; descriptive, argumentative and persuasive, then we have to include the hortatory in the persuasive essay. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to follow the writer’s act and opinion, point forward that certain thing should or should not be done.

Hortatory is similar to analytical exposition but if we have to differentiate both from one to each other, we have one useful tool by making analysis on the generic structure. What makes hortatory different from analytical exposition is the last finalizing step which analytical exposition is ended by a reiteration while hortatory is finalized by certain a recommendation. The generic structure is as follow:

Thesis; thesis is similar to tentative conclusion which needs to be proven by certain fact and argument. In the end, it can be true or false

Arguments; this is the phase which try to examine and support that the thesis stated above is true.

Recommendation; this is what should or should not be done in the hortatory text. This recommendation is differentiating from analytical exposition.

Now we will see the following example of hortatory text

Higher Education for Woman

In this modern era, there are still some parents who are reluctant about sending their daughter to college. Such narrow attitude shown to woman higher education is largely due to the traditional role of woman in society. A woman is expected just to be a wife and a mother most parents believe that if their daughter gets married and chooses to be a housewife, then the higher education will be a waste. However an educated woman does not only make a better wife abut also contributer better thing to the large society.

Nowadays more women are successfully combining their career and marriage. Educated women are richer both emotionally and financially. They are able to find an outlet for monotonous drudgery of their housekeeping. They bring more satisfaction and contentment to their lives.

Depriving girl of higher education is crash discrimination. Time has changed. Modern society need the talents of its people regardless of gender. Today women work alongside men. In fact, in the last few decades women have made outstanding contributions to society.

Woman should be given the freedom to be educated whether they get married or go to work after finishing their education because it is only through education that a woman will find herself useful and discover what she wants in life. A woman who work is not an insult to her husband. Conversely, her husband should feel proud of her achievement since marriage is actually an equal partnership. Therefore, parents should not think that girls should receive less education just because they will get marriage one day.

4

Learning text types is presented as the main subject in English lesson for high school students. Most of the time during their time in high school, the students focus their attention to text types with each generic structure and what language used to construct the texts varying to each other. That generic structure and language features which are commonly found different from one text to another is used based on the purpose of each genres.

Text types in the three main genres which must be studied in high school specially designed for graduate competences standard (SKL) are:
NARRATION
This narrative genre includes narrative, recount, and news item. All these text types in narrative genres composed to tell and inform.
DESCRIPTION
The texts which include in descriptive genres are report, descriptive, and explanation. These text genres are written to describe. They tend to use words with describing sense and not telling
ARGUMENTATION
Argumentative genres will cover analytical exposition, hortatory exposition and discussion. These text types explore reason to answer the question “why” and “how”.

To enlarge our knowledge, texts are defined into three main genres which slightly different from the above classification referring to the high school graduate competences standard. According to nationalstrategies, the tree main genres which show the text types distinctions are as follow:
1. NARRATIVE which includes adventure, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, contemporary fiction, dilemma stories, dialogue, myths, legends, fairy tales, and fables.
2. NON-FICTION which accommodates discussion texts, explanatory texts, instructional text, persuasion texts, non-chronological reports and recounts.
3. POETRY which refers to free verse, visual poems and structured poems.

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